What do I do if I am arrested by the police?

Stay calm and don’t panic! NEVER resist arrest by police, even if you feel you are being wrongfully arrested. Resisting arrest will very likely lead to the greater use of force by the police and in additional criminal charges.

What are my rights once I am placed under arrest?

Once you are placed under arrest, you will usually be advised of your Constitutional rights as follows: 1) You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law; 2) You have the right to speak to an attorney, and to have an attorney present during questioning; 3) If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be provided to you at government expense. After these rights, known as Miranda rights, are read to you, you will be asked if you understand these rights. If you need an interpreter to help you with the understanding of these rights, you can request one. If you don’t understand your rights, even with the help of an interpreter, let the police officer know. Once you have indicated you understand your rights, the police officer will usually ask you if you wish to waive them and provide a statement.

Should I exercise any or all of my rights?

In general, it is better to ask for your lawyer and decline to answer any questions unless instructed by your lawyer. Many people get in trouble when they attempt to explain their situation or provide an excuse for their conduct that led to the arrest. Remember, all of the statements you make will be used against you in a court of law. Sometimes, lies are as damaging against you as confessions. So, unless authorized by your lawyer, don’t say anything beyond your name and contact information. For those who are foreign citizens visiting the United States, you should consider notifying your country’s Embassy or Consulate of your arrest. They may have resources available to help you.

Does being placed under arrest necessarily mean I will be detained in jail?

No. If you are arrested for a minor offense like shoplifting, driving while license suspended, or even driving while under the influence, you may be booked into jail and processed for fingerprints and other administrative requirements. However, once these have been completed, you may be released on your own recognizance or to an adult relative or friend, assuming you are not a danger to yourself or others. Your release does not mean you will not be charged with a crime later after the investigation is completed. Your release just means that the police see no reason to detain you at the time. So be on your best behavior and follow all commands by the police. Once released, you should also use the time to look for a competent and experienced lawyer because you will probably be charged a later date. Don’t wait until the last minute to find a good lawyer. If you are arrested for a serious or violent offense, you will very probably be detained in jail. This is also true if you are found to have an outstanding warrant for your arrest on another matter, even though your current arrest is for a minor offense.

What should I do if I am detained following an arrest?

Ask for access to a phone. Your first phone call should be to someone you trust and someone you know you can reach right away. This may be your lawyer or a family member or friend. If you call a family member or friend, be sure he or she helps you find and hire a good, dependable and experienced lawyer. You should also have your contact research the several bail bond companies in the area. You may need their assistance to post bail. For many charges, the court may allow you to be released pending trial if you post bail, so it is important to have a bail bond company ready to assist you to minimize your time spent in jail.

What should I do if I believe I am being wrongfully arrested?

Discuss this with your lawyer. Do not argue with the police or the judge. Let your lawyer handle this for you.

What usually happens 24-72 hours following an arrest and detention?

Not including weekends and certain holidays, within this time period, you will usually be given what is known as your “first appearance’ before a judge. The judge will review the police reports and determine if there is “probable cause” to believe you committed a crime. If there is such cause, the judge will next determine if you should continue to be detained or if you should be released with conditions such as bail, promise not to engage in further criminal behavior, promise to stay away from certain persons or places. This is why it is important to hire a lawyer right away and arrange for the posting of bail through your own finances or through a bail bond company. If you are detained, the prosecutor must file formal charges against you within 72 hours of your arrest. If he/she doesn’t, then you must be released. Again, this does not mean you are completely clear. It very likely means that the prosecutor needs more time to bring charges against you. So use this time to hire a good lawyer.

What are factors that the judge will consider in determining whether to release or keep me in detention?

Factors in favor of release include the lack of criminal history, the relatively minor nature of the crime, presence of a support system, history of continuous employment, ties to the community and verifiable address and contact information, and the likelihood that conditions of release will be followed by you. Factors against release include criminal history, the seriousness of the crime, risk of harm to yourself or others, risk of future criminal conduct, few or no ties to the community, evidence that you are likely not to appear in court in the future (foreign citizen), or a history of failing to appear for court in other criminal matters.

 

—Disclaimer—

This article is made available by Lee & Lee, PS for educational purposes only. The intent is to give the reader general information and a general understanding of the law. The article does not provide specific legal advice. Readers of this article should understand that there is no attorney client relationship between you and the writers. Furthermore, the article is not a substitute for competent legal advice from a licensed professional attorney in your jurisdiction.

What should you do when you are stopped by police in your car?

Stop as soon as possible at the nearest safe location without blocking traffic. Leave room on the driver side of the road for the police officer to safely approach you.

After pulling-over, what should you do?

Open your car window, but NOT your door. Do not get out of your car unless you are asked by the police. Do not make any sudden movements or bend down. Keep your hands visible at all times. If it is dark outside, turn on the dome light. Be polite, follow the instructions and stay calm.

If we are in a hurry or in an emergency situation, should we inform the police officer?

Stop the vehicle. Explain to the officer the nature of the emergency situation and ask for his/her assistance.

Do we have the right to ask for the police officer’s identification, rank, police department he/she works or for the precinct location?

Yes, it is the responsibility of the police officer to provide his/her identification at traffic spot. Please ask in a polite manner. If the officer refuses, you still need to cooperate.

Can we record the conversation with the officer?

In Washington State, the law requires both parties’ consent in order to legally record the conversation. Do not record the conversation without the officer’s consent, and the consent must also be recorded.

What do you do if the officer is abusive, humiliating or disrespectful?

Stay calm. Follow officer’s instructions at all times. Request the officer’s identification. After the incident, report your complaints to the police or consult a lawyer.

 

—Disclaimer—
This article is made available by Lee & Lee, PS for educational purposes only. The intent is to give the reader general information and a general understanding of the law. The article does not provide specific legal advice. Readers of this article should understand that there is no attorney client relationship between you and the writers. Furthermore, the article is not a substitute for competent legal advice from a licensed professional attorney in your jurisdiction.

What To Do if Your Personal or Financial Information has been Stolen?

If you suspect that your personal information has been misused to commit fraud or theft, act immediately, and keep a detailed record of your conversations and correspondence.

Your first three steps should be:

First, contact the fraud departments of each of the three major credit bureaus:

  • Equifax: www.equifax.com To order your report, call: 1-800-685-1111
    Or write: P.O. Box 740241, Atlanta, GA 30374-0241
    To report fraud, call: 1-800-525-6285
    And write: P.O. Box 740241, Atlanta, GA 30374-0241
  • Experian: www.experian.com
    To order your report, call: 1-888-EXPERIAN (397-3742)
    Or write: P.O. Box 2104, Allen TX 75013
    To report fraud, call: 1-888-EXPERIAN (397-3742)
    And write: P.O. Box 9532, Allen TX 75013
  • TransUnion: www.transunion.com
    To order your report, call: 800-916-8800
    Or write: P.O. Box 1000, Chester, PA 19022.
    To report fraud, call: 1-800-680-7289
    And write: Fraud Victim Assistance Division, P.O. Box 6790, Fullerton, CA 92834-6790

Second, close the accounts that you know or believe have been tampered with or opened fraudulently.

Third, file a police report with your local police or the police in the community where the theft took place. In the modern age of cell phones, wireless technology and the internet has made banking increasingly convenient and efficient, but it has come at a cost: financial security. As banks and Internet companies diligently develop strategies to make transactions secure; identity thieves have evolved new and creative ways to steal your financial information. Financial institutions, legitimate Internet companies and law enforcement are doing what they can with the resources they have, but it falls on each individual to do their part to protect themselves from identity theft.

—Disclaimer—
This article is made available by Lee & Lee, PS for educational purposes only. The intent is to give the reader general information and a general understanding of the law. The article does not provide specific legal advice. Readers of this article should understand that there is no attorney client relationship between you and the writers. Furthermore, the article is not a substitute for competent legal advice from a licensed professional attorney in your jurisdiction.

What is Identity Theft?
Identity theft is the fastest-growing crime in the United States, in the most recent data from the FBI 9.9 Million Americans have been victims of Identity Theft. Washington State ranks eighth in the nation in the rate of identity theft crimes per capita. The average victim spends 30 to 40 hours rectifying the damage caused by identity theft.

Identity Theft is the crime of stealing someone’s personal, identifying information for the purpose of using that information fraudulently. Personal, identifying information includes: Social Security Numbers, credit card and banking account numbers, usernames, passwords, and patient records. Fraudulent uses for that information can often include: opening new credit accounts, taking out loans in the victim’s name, stealing money from financial accounts, or using available credit.

How to Protect Yourself From Being a Victim of Identity Theft
1. Keep records with your personal information in a safe place and if you throw away records that contain personal or financial information shred them before putting them in the trash.
2. Monitor your bank and credit card transactions for unauthorized use. (On average, it takes identity theft victims 12 months to realize that they have been victimized.)
3. Don’t provide your credit card number online unless you are making a purchase from a Web site you trust. Reputable sites will always direct you to a secure pagewith a URL starting with https:// whenever you actually make purchases or are asked to provide confidential information.
4. Never provide your personal information to anyone who contacts you through a phone solicitation. If you do provide your credit card number over the phone, be certain that you were the one initiating the call.
5. Immediately report and cancel stolen or lost credit or ATM cards.

 

—Disclaimer—
This article is made available by Lee & Lee, PS for educational purposes only. The intent is to give the reader general information and a general understanding of the law. The article does not provide specific legal advice. Readers of this article should understand that there is no attorney client relationship between you and the writers. Furthermore, the article is not a substitute for competent legal advice from a licensed professional attorney in your jurisdiction.

In the last article, you mentioned that there were some serious risks to the EB-5 investor visa. Do you have examples? 

Some developers and lawyers lure potential applicants into investing in projects that have yet to be approved as regional centers with promises that government approval is just months away. Be cautious about promises. Potential applicants should research the project, the developer and the lawyers carefully. Some EB-5 projects try to lure investors by giving them some sort of guarantee on their investment. This is not permitted because it means the investment is not “at-risk” as required by the law. Or, developers may try to take advantage of investors desperate for the green card and who are willing to lose their investment and more in order to obtain permanent residency. In such cases, developers charge outrageous “management” fees for managing the projects, knowing that the applicant won’t complain for fear of jeopardizing his visa application. Some developers may also try to use the invested funds while the initial visa application is still pending. If the application is denied, those funds might be lost forever. The investment should be placed into an escrow account until the application is approved.

What do you suggest a potential EB-5 applicant do to avoid being taken advantage of?

Research, research, research and more research; look into the backgrounds of everyone concerned with the EB-5 regional center project. Ask a lot of questions and demand information up front. If not satisfied with the responses, look elsewhere. Beware of promises. Very few things in life are guaranteed, so be cautious when a lawyer promises you a green card or when a developer promises a certain return on an investment. Read all documents carefully. If English is a struggle, then don’t be ashamed to hire an interpreter to help. A lot of money is involved – spending a few hundred dollars on an interpreter could be the best investment of all. After reading the complicated documents, there should be lots of questions. Don’t be afraid to ask them – you’ll regret it later if you don’t.

Do you have any other advice to minimize the risks? 

Demand to visit the project. Sometimes, a person can get a lot of information from inspecting and examining the project. Consider the location of the project, the business plan, and the surrounding area. Does the project seem like a good idea in light of all of the circumstances? Remember, there has to be a showing that you investment created 10 US jobs. If the project is a failure within 2 years of your application, this will be a huge problem. If you are discouraged from visiting the project, this should be a warning sign. Be wary of the fees charged for legal services and/or services related to the management of the project. If the fees seem very high or unreasonable, demand an explanation in writing. The bottom line: use common sense and trust instinct. If there is an uneasy feeling or there seem to be more questions than answers, walk away! There are and will be other legitimate EB-5 projects.

 

—Disclaimer—
This article is made available by Lee & Lee, PS for educational purposes only. The intent is to give the reader general information and a general understanding of the law. The article does not provide specific legal advice. Readers of this article should understand that there is no attorney client relationship between you and the writers. Furthermore, the article is not a substitute for competent legal advice from a licensed professional attorney in your jurisdiction.

I heard that there are educational requirements in order to apply for the EB-5?

This is incorrect. So long as you meet the minimum EB-5 requirements, it doesn’t matter if you are a high school dropout or a highly respected Ph.d.

What about English language requirements?

There is no requirement that the EB-5 applicant must speak English. However, the application forms and the required interview(s) will be in English, so an interpreter may be needed to assist with the process. The cost of the interpreter must be borne by the investor applicant.

Are there any other requirements?

The investor and his/her family must prove that everyone is in good health and do not suffer from any diseases that could harm the public. There are also requirements that hopeful immigrants must have been vaccinated against certain diseases prior to the filing of their petitions/applications. EB-5 hopefuls must also have no criminal convictions. While not all criminal convictions will result in automatic denial, any criminal past will pose significant problems. The remaining long list of things that may make someone ineligible for a visa probably won’t be applicable to most applicants/petitioners as they include such things as involvement in terrorist activities, smuggling, prostitution, human trafficking and participation in radical movements.

Can people apply for an EB-5 visa from any country?

Citizens of any country may apply for a visa so long as the US maintains diplomatic relations with that country. An applicant must also be able to leave his country legally and make the required investment.

What are the most typical reasons for an EB-5 visa to be denied?

Most visa denials are the result of an applicant’s inability to adequately document the sources of the investment funds. Gifted money can be used, but the applicant must still prove that such funds were obtained legally by both the donor and the applicant. Sometimes, it can be difficult to obtain reliable documentation that traces the source of the funds, especially in countries where the banking system is neither reliable nor sophisticated. Another common reason for visa denial is the inability to prove that the investment resulted in the creation of 10 US jobs. Some EB-5 regional center projects are less reliable and diligent with their records keeping and accounting, making it almost impossible for applicants to demonstrate the required job creation. A good and responsible EB-5 regional center project should have this detailed information documented by experts and available for the applicant to submit with his/her application.

So, is the EB-5 investor visa a good idea?

In general, yes. If the applicant has the minimum required funds and can adequately demonstrate the legality of the money, this is a good option for seeking entry and permanent residence in the US. However, there are also many pitfalls. With the rise of EB-5 applications, there has been an equal rise of dishonest developers and lawyers (in both the US and abroad) who are trying to take advantage of the system and the applicants. The required investment is so large that many people see this as an opportunity to take advantage of those desperately seeking to obtain a green card.

 

—Disclaimer—

This article is made available by Lee & Lee, PS for educational purposes only. The intent is to give the reader general information and a general understanding of the law. The article does not provide specific legal advice. Readers of this article should understand that there is no attorney client relationship between you and the writers. Furthermore, the article is not a substitute for competent legal advice from a licensed professional attorney in your jurisdiction.

I have been reading a lot lately about the EB-5 Investor Visa. What is this? 

The EB-5 Visa program was created in 1990 by the US Congress to give foreign nationals a means to seek permanent residency by investing in the US economy. The program has an annual quota of 10,000 visas per year for foreign nationals and their family members. Of those, 5,000 visas are specifically reserved for investments made in regional centers.

What is the difference between a general investment and an investment in a regional center? 

Generally, a $1,000,000 investment is required to apply for an EB-5 visa. But, if an investment is directed into a government-designated Regional Center then the required investment amount is only $500,000. A Regional Center is defined as a target employment area – one which faces a higher than normal unemployment rate or an economically depressed area. There are strict requirements for developers to get a project approved as an EB-5 Regional Center.

Who is eligible to apply for an EB-5 visa? 

Anyone who has the required funds and documented proof that the funds were earned or obtained legally is eligible. When applying for the EB-5 Visa I-526 petition, the investor must be able to provide detailed records demonstrating the financial transactions through which he/she acquired the funds as well as how he/she managed, moved and sustained the required funds during the entire period of ownership by the investor. The investor should also expect to provide at least five years of individual tax returns with proof of payment of all taxes due to all countries that assert tax obligations on the investor.

What is an example of illegally obtained or earned funds? 

Income from any illegal activity (drugs, smuggling, theft etc.) is the most obvious example. Funds earned or obtained in the US while the investor was on unlawful immigration status are also deemed to be unlawfully acquired.

I heard that the funds must be “at risk.” What does this mean? 

This means that there can be no guarantees on an EB-5 investment. The funds must be used by the business enterprise to create employment. Funds used to pay administrative costs or other obligations undertaken to promote the investment (advertising) are not considered to be “at-risk.” Any commitment by the enterprise to the investor that is deemed to transform the relationship from an investment to a debt arrangement (for example, a promise to pay a fixed rate of return or to repay some or all of the investment on a date certain, or to repay some or all of the investment regardless of the financial performance of the project) will not be considered “at-risk.”

You mentioned job creation as another requirement. Please explain. 

Each EB-5 investor must create at least 10 direct or indirect full time US jobs as a result of their investment. If the investment is made outside of a regional center, there must be evidence that the 10 jobs were created directly from the investment.

 

—Disclaimer—

This article is made available by Lee & Lee, PS for educational purposes only. The intent is to give the reader general information and a general understanding of the law. The article does not provide specific legal advice. Readers of this article should understand that there is no attorney client relationship between you and the writers. Furthermore, the article is not a substitute for competent legal advice from a licensed professional attorney in your jurisdiction.

What kind of evidence should I present in my defense?

You want to demonstrate that you did not or could not have committed the infraction.  Making excuses does not help prove your innocence, so saying things like: “I was just going with the flow of traffic”, or “I didn’t know how fast I was going” or “well there was another guy who was going even faster than I was” are not going to be very persuasive to a judge.  Also, ignorance of the law is not a defense.  So explanations like: “I didn’t see the posted speed limit” or “I thought I was allowed to drive on the shoulder” or “the traffic laws in my country are different so I was confused” are not going to help.

If a radar detector was used to read your speed, try to show that there were so many cars near and around you that the radar could not have accurately detected your speed.  If you had to make an emergency maneuver to avoid an accident, present that evidence.  Sometimes, arguments about the fairness of a ticket can be persuasive to a judge.  For example, some police officers like to catch people coming out of a higher speed limit area into a lower speed limit area.  If you were driving within the speed limit in a 35 mph zone and, upon immediately entering a 25 mph zone, an officer pulls you over – show this in court.

How can I show this unfair speed entrapment?
Take photos of the area where you were stopped, being careful to show the speed limit signs as well.  Show, if you can, that the officer stopped you within a few feet of entering the lower speed zone.

What other things can I argue or demonstrate?

Radar detectors are generally quite accurate, assuming they have been properly maintained and serviced. But officers sometimes also gauge your speed by following you and, while maintaining a constant distance from you, use their own speedometer to measure your speed. This isn’t very accurate, so if you had passengers in your car, see if they noticed how fast you were going and can testify to your true speed.

Police officers are human and also make mistakes. So come to court prepared with credible witnesses, photographic evidence and/or a logical argument of your innocence and you may have a shot at winning. Keep in mind, however, that the police or prosecutor only has to prove that you committed the infraction “by a preponderance of the evidence.” This means there only needs to be a showing of a 51% likelihood that you committed the infraction – this isn’t a very heavy burden for the prosecutor or police.

A judge has found that I committed the infraction.  Now what?

Don’t get angry. You have a couple of choices: 1) Pay the fine. Most judges will reduce the fine just for showing up in court; or 2) you can appeal the judge’s finding. To appeal the judge’s finding, you must file a written notice appeal with the court within 30 days of the finding. You will be responsible for the costs of an appeal, which includes a $220 filing fee. The appeal will be reviewed by the Superior Court. The Superior Court will only review the record/evidence presented during the contested traffic hearing. You will not be allowed to present new evidence. If it is that important to you to fight your ticket, I recommend that you hire an attorney to handle your appeal. Appeals are far more complicated than presenting evidence in a traffic court hearing.

What if I refuse to pay the fine imposed by the judge?

That would be a very bad idea.  The unpaid fine will be sent to a collections agency and your credit history will be negatively impacted.  More importantly, unpaid traffic fines will lead to your driver’s license being suspended.  If you continue to drive with a suspended driver’s license, you could be charged with a crime.  So, ignoring a minor traffic ticket could lead to an escalation of charges and result in the loss of your liberty.

 

—Disclaimer—

This article is made available by Lee & Lee, PS for educational purposes only. The intent is to give the reader general information and a general understanding of the law. The article does not provide specific legal advice. Readers of this article should understand that there is no attorney client relationship between you and the writers. Furthermore, the article is not a substitute for competent legal advice from a licensed professional attorney in your jurisdiction.

I have heard about something called “deferral.” Is this a good way to fight my ticket?

A “deferral” is not really a way to fight your ticket. Instead, it is a way to keep your driving record clean. However, the first step in a deferral is to admit that you committed the traffic infraction.

How does it work?

One deferral is allowed every seven years for a non-moving violation (i.e. defective tail light) and one deferral is allowed every seven years for a moving violation (i.e. speeding). This law grants the judge/commissioner the ability to grant a deferral, but does not compel him/her to do so. There are also not set criteria for getting a deferral – it is up to the individual judge/commissioner. But, this is where your driving record can be useful. Most judges will grant a deferral if: 1) you have a driving record that he/she feels is deserving of a deferral; 2) you pay a fee (usually $100-200) which sometimes may be higher than the fine on your original ticket; 3) you do not commit another infraction for a set period (normally 6-12 months); and 4) you are not a commercial driver. If you comply with the judge’s/commissioner’s conditions, the traffic infraction will not appear on your record. But, if you get a second infraction within the specified time period, or fail to make your payment on time, the infraction will appear on your record AND you will have to pay the full fine for the ticket.

If I don’t want a deferral and I want to fight my ticket in court without a lawyer, what should I do?

Be prepared. If you have witnesses, bring them to court with you. A letter or statement from a witness will not be allowed in court. Generally, you must present live witnesses. Bring with you all documents, photographs or other evidence that you intend to use in your argument. Show up to court early and dressed appropriately. Check in with the clerk or bailiff to let the court know you have arrived and sit quietly until your case is called. Sometimes, it can take up to three hours before your case is heard. Don’t be nervous! Even if this is your first time speaking in front of people or in a courtroom, be calm. The judge/commissioner knows this can be a nervous ordeal for many. Most will try to be relatively informal and relaxed. If you need an interpreter, don’t be ashamed or embarrassed. You should request an interpreter at the time you requested a hearing. If you forgot to do this, ask to reschedule the hearing to another time when an interpreter can be available. Or, you can bring a friend with you to help translate.

—Disclaimer—

This article is made available by Lee & Lee, PS for educational purposes only. The intent is to give the reader general information and a general understanding of the law. The article does not provide specific legal advice. Readers of this article should understand that there is no attorney client relationship between you and the writers. Furthermore, the article is not a substitute for competent legal advice from a licensed professional attorney in your jurisdiction.

The first thing you should do is order a copy of your driving record from the Department of Licensing. You can do this online by visiting www.dol.wa.gov It is a good idea to get a copy of your driving record because it will give you a realistic appreciation for your driving history. The lack of a history may be beneficial to you in court. If you have a long and bad driving record, be prepared for the worst. The judge or the commissioner will have a copy of your record.

Should I request that the trooper or officer be subpoenaed for court?

This could be a good strategy. If the officer or trooper fails to appear in court, you may ask the court to dismiss the traffic infraction. In most cases, the dismissal will probably be granted…but it is the judge’s/commissioner’s discretion. Police officers are very busy and may not have time to appear in court to deal with a minor traffic ticket. If you were pulled over in the middle of the night, there is a high probability that the officer sleeps during the day, which is when the hearings are scheduled. An officer may not want to give up his sleep time to testify in a minor traffic case. However, there are police officers that are very dedicated to their jobs and will appear in court no matter the time or the case.

Are there any other “tricks” to getting a ticket dismissed?

Yes, there are many ways to get your ticket dismissed. For example, if you were caught speeding by use of a radar gun, you can demand that the prosecutor/police prove that the radar equipment was tested recently and found to be in accurate working order. If such proof cannot be provided, you may ask for your ticket to be dismissed. In general, however, the many ways to get your ticket dismissed involve a deep understanding of the rules and laws. If your intent is to use a technicality to get your ticket dismissed, I recommend you contact an attorney who specializes in fighting traffic tickets.

How much do attorneys charge to fight traffic tickets?

In general, these specialist attorneys charge anywhere from $300 – $500, inclusive of all costs and expenses. The fee depends on the attorney’s experience and the volume of cases he/she handles. To some people, the legal fees are well worth it. Others prefer to try and save money and fight their ticket on their own. This is a matter of choice. If you do decide to hire an attorney, select one that has experience fighting in traffic court. A fancy corporate lawyer from a big law firm likely won’t have the necessary experience and knowledge to successfully represent you in traffic court. Such a lawyer is also unlikely to want to handle such a minor case.

 

—Disclaimer—

This article is made available by Lee & Lee, PS for educational purposes only. The intent is to give the reader general information and a general understanding of the law. The article does not provide specific legal advice. Readers of this article should understand that there is no attorney client relationship between you and the writers. Furthermore, the article is not a substitute for competent legal advice from a licensed professional attorney in your jurisdiction.